114 SHIPPING PRACTICE
Sweden. Exports: iron ore, steel, and timber; 25 ft. water; quick
dispatch; special tips for ores; charges cheap; 1,350 miles Leith.
This port is frozen from November to 3Iay.
India. Exports: seeds, cotton, and groundnuts; %vater deep.
Artificial harbour; charges are low; port is well equipped with
appliances; 7,000 miles London.
Philippines. Exports: sugar, hemp, copra; charges are low;
loading is done by native labour; slow turnabout; 9,670 miles
Japan. Fuelling station. Good water depth; loading by lighters;
slow but cheap.
St. Lawrence. Exports: grain and timber; well equipped; grain
elevators, etc.; frozen December-March; quick discharge; port
charges are low; accommodation excellent; 3,140 miles London.
Commencement of St. Lawrence seaway to Great Lakes.
New South Wales. Exports: coal, coke, and wheat; charges are
dear; dispatch is quick; difficult navigation, owing to sand bars;
11,500 miles London.
NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE
Exports: coal, chemicals; imports: grain (elevators), iron ore,
oil, esparto grass; water 30 ft.; specially equipped for coal loading;
loading and discharge of general cargo about 800 tons a day; charges
Louisiana. Exports: cotton, lumber, rice, soya, sulphur, grain,
coal', 30-35 ft. maximmri; charges are heavy; stevedoring high;
quick dispatch; 4,810 miles London.
NEW YORK (U.S.A.)
Exports: petroleum, grain, and coal; takes any size vessel in
harbour; modern appliances; heavy stevedoring is offset by quick
dispatch; 3,200 miles London.
Denmark. Approached by ii-mile long canal. Exports: farm
products; water 24ft.; grain elevators; good appliances for general
cargo, rail connections to dock; 600 miles London.
Black Sea. Has five harbours; water soft.; tramp cargoes of
grain; turnabout slow; charges are dear owing to accommodation
being neglected; 3,300 miles London.